• Ritka égi tüneményt okozott a napfogyatkozás

    2014. 10. 30. 08:06

    Lencsék az égen

    Így néztek ki a lencsefelhők

    Forrás: SLATE Bad Astronomy/Phil Plait

    A felhők azonban vékonyodni kezdtek, és a Bad Astronomy szerzője számára feltűnt, hogy két lencsefelhőről van szó. Ez önmagában is elég ritkán megfigyelhető jelenség. Azaltocumulus lenticularisok többnyire nagy kiemelkedések felett (jelen esetben a Sziklás-hegységről van szó), de valamivel azok fölött jelennek meg, amint a levegőben állóhullám alakul ki. Miközben a levegő áramlik bennük, egyik oldalukon folyamatosan keletkeznek, míg a túloldalon feloszlanak.

    ...különlegesen színezve

    Mint írja, korábban már volt szerencséje állófelhőkhöz, így abban reménykedett, hogy lefotózhatja, amint a szélükön különleges módon törik meg a napfény. Ez az irizálás:

    A felhő pereme erősen fehér volt, szabad szemmel kevésbé volt észlelhető az irizálás. Az ég valójában kék volt – a képen azért szinte fekete, mert a fotósnak szűkítenie kellett a rekeszt, és alacsony érzékenységgel és kis expozíciós idővel kellett dolgoznia. Itt az eredeti blogposzt, a teljes méretű fotó pedig itt látható

    Forrás: SLATE Bad Astronomy/Phil Plait

    „AMIKOR MEGLÁTTAM EZT A KÉPET, MEGDÖBBENTEM.

    Lehet, hogy ez a legszebb kép, amit valaha készítettem. Különlegesen a színek, irizálás esetén gyakran fordul elő a rózsaszínt és a kékeszöld, azonban sárga árnyalatokat csak egyszer-kétszer láttam” – írja.

    Hogyan alakul ki?

    Az irizálás akkor jön létre, amikor a felhőben sok apró vízcsepp vagy jégkristály oszlik szét egyenletesen, amelyek fényelhajlást (diffrakciót) okoznak. Emellett a fénysugaraknak találkozniuk kell egymással, pontosabban szükség van az interferenciára is.

    A vízcseppeknek azért muszáj nagyon kicsiknek lenniük, hogy méretük közelítsen kell a fény hullámhosszához. Vagyis az irizálás légköroptikai jelensége akkor lép fel, ha a cseppek mérete alig egy mikrométer. További feltétel, hogy a fénysugárnak csak egyszer szabad elhajlania, mert ha többszörös diffrakció fordul elő, fakók lesznek a színek. Fontos, hogy a felhő optikai értelemben vékony, azaz többé-kevésbé átlátszó legyen. Így aztán a vékony felhők, illetve a felhők széle szokott irizálni.


  • Chromatic Clouds
     
     

    Oct. 23 was the solar eclipse, as you probably well know. I was out on my deck taking a lot of pictures as the event started, but within a few minutes the clouds rolled in. As the Sun disappeared, I was pretty sure the next hour was hopeless.

    Phil Plait Phil Plait

    Phil Plait writes Slate’s Bad Astronomy blog and is an astronomer, public speaker, science evangelizer, and author of Death From the Skies!  

    As you can see in the final image in the photo gallery I put up yesterday, the clouds thinned every now and again, and I was able to get a few interesting pictures. As I watched, though, I noticed the clouds were lenticulars, lens-shaped as they were sculpted by winds blowing up and over the Rocky Mountains to the west. Having some experience with this, I kept an eye on them … and sure enough, I saw what I was hoping for: iridescence along the edges.

    Advertisement
     
     

    This colorful phenomenon is amazing and lovely, and very hard to capture in photographs. I took a lot of shots at different settings, and when I saw this one I was stunned. It may be the most beautiful photo I’ve ever taken:

    iridescent cloud

    Photo by Phil Plait

    I mean, seriously. I took that! What you’re seeing is the edge of a cloud, fiercely lit by the Sun; by eye it was intensely white, with just a hint of color. The sky below it was actually blue, but it’s black here because I had to stop down the aperture and use a low ISO, as well as a fast exposure time.

    For contrast, here’s a photo I took minutes later at settings that better show the sky:

    lenticular clouds

    Photo by Phil Plait

    The cloud stretching across the top is the one that’s featured in the first photo, and you can see the two lenticular clouds below it. The cloud in the middle with the forked end on the left was also pretty colorful a few minutes before I took this shot. At the upper right of the photo you can see just a hint of color, too. 

    The colors are amazing. Pink and teal are common in iridescence, but I’ve only seen yellows once or twice.

    As for the science behind this, I wrote about it before:

    Iridescence is a weird phenomenon. You need lots of tiny raindrops (or ice crystals) all the same size over a large portion of the cloud. In a rainbow, the lights goes into the droplets and gets bent (twice) to create colors. In iridescence, though, the light actually bends (diffracts) around the droplets. Different colors bend by different amounts, splitting the colors apart. The size of the raindrop needs to be roughly the same size as the wavelength of light, so when I say “tiny” I mean it: The drops must be less around a micron in size! A human hair, by the way, is about 100 microns in width, so these really are teensy drops.
    But it’s more complicated than just that. The cloud also has to be what’s called optically thin; that is, mostly transparent so that on average a beam of light only hits one droplet and only gets bent once. If it hits multiple drops the colors get washed out. That’s why this happens more often near the edges of clouds, where they’re thinner. On top of that, the light waves interfere with each other, similar to how waves in a bathtub add together or subtract from each others’ wave heights as you wiggle around (and please, don’t deny you’ve ever done this playing in the tub; it’s fun, and educational!). These processes combine in complicated ways to produce these different colors.

    I was very excited about getting shots of the eclipse on Thursday, but to be honest, I’m a lot happier with this one than any of the pictures of the Sun I took! The lesson here is, when you’re out and about, keep your eyes and mind open to what’s going on around you, and be flexible. Goals change, and you can wind up with something a lot cooler and more beautiful than what you originally planned.


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  • Anger mounts in Hungary over internet tax

    AFP
     

     
    Mihaly Varga, then the state secretary of the cabinet, attends a press conference in Budapest, on May 3, 2010
    .

     

    Mihaly Varga, then the state secretary of the cabinet, attends a press conference in Budapest, on May …

    Budapest (AFP) - A proposed Hungarian tax on internet usage has sparked new accusations of an anti-democratic crackdown in the EU member as tens of thousands are expected to march against the measure Sunday.

    Economy Minister Mihaly Varga said Tuesday that the tax -- 150 forints (0.50 euros, $0.61) on each transferred gigabyte of data -- was needed to plug holes in the 2015 budget of one of the EU's most indebted nations.

    He also said the tax was fair as it reflected a shift by consumers to the internet away from phone lines.

    The idea has triggered alarm, including from Nellie Kroes, the EU's digital chief, who tweeted that the tax was "a shame for users and a shame for the Hungarian government".

    Governing right-wing party Fidesz, led by Prime Minister Viktor Orban, later proposed capping monthly payment at 700 forints (2.3 euros, $3) for consumers and 5,000 forints for businesses, but the move has failed to calm anger.

    Some 36,000 people have signed up to a protest organised on social media to be held outside the Economy Ministry Sunday to demand the tax be scrapped.

    Organisers told AFP Saturday via email that the tax would restrict access to information, particularly in poor areas, could cripple small businesses, and would restrict government critics who mainly use online media.

    "It is the latest anti-democratic crackdown by Orban, a direct attack on freedom of expression," organisers said.

    The top US diplomat in Budapest warned Friday of "negative trends" such as weakening of the rule of law and intimidation of civil society have "rapidly taken hold" in Hungary, days after Washington issued entry bans on six government officials it suspects of corruption.

    View Comments (40)

  • Anger mounts in Hungary over internet tax

    AFP
     

     
    Mihaly Varga, then the state secretary of the cabinet, attends a press conference in Budapest, on May 3, 2010
    .
    Mihaly Varga, then the state secretary of the cabinet, attends a press conference in Budapest, on May …

    Budapest (AFP) - A proposed Hungarian tax on internet usage has sparked new accusations of an anti-democratic crackdown in the EU member as tens of thousands are expected to march against the measure Sunday.

    Economy Minister Mihaly Varga said Tuesday that the tax -- 150 forints (0.50 euros, $0.61) on each transferred gigabyte of data -- was needed to plug holes in the 2015 budget of one of the EU's most indebted nations.

    He also said the tax was fair as it reflected a shift by consumers to the internet away from phone lines.

    The idea has triggered alarm, including from Nellie Kroes, the EU's digital chief, who tweeted that the tax was "a shame for users and a shame for the Hungarian government".

    Governing right-wing party Fidesz, led by Prime Minister Viktor Orban, later proposed capping monthly payment at 700 forints (2.3 euros, $3) for consumers and 5,000 forints for businesses, but the move has failed to calm anger.

    Some 36,000 people have signed up to a protest organised on social media to be held outside the Economy Ministry Sunday to demand the tax be scrapped.

    Organisers told AFP Saturday via email that the tax would restrict access to information, particularly in poor areas, could cripple small businesses, and would restrict government critics who mainly use online media.

    "It is the latest anti-democratic crackdown by Orban, a direct attack on freedom of expression," organisers said.

    The top US diplomat in Budapest warned Friday of "negative trends" such as weakening of the rule of law and intimidation of civil society have "rapidly taken hold" in Hungary, days after Washington issued entry bans on six government officials it suspects of corruption.

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    •  
      Daniel P 2 hours ago
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      2

      How is it anti-democratic, so when a country that isn't the US or EU raises taxes or fee it's anti-democratic? But it's OK for the US government, US states, US counties & cites to raise their taxes just so they can spend more on frivolous government or to give themselves raises. I don't see it, if Hungary wants to tax its people who are we to judge & how the US says it's anti-democratic because the US people are blinded by a corrupt government in all levels.

      Have you looked at all the taxes the corrupt governments of the US impose? We are taxed multiple times for the same items, we pay an import tax, manufacture tax, transportation tax, tariffs, local tax, state tax, etc. & when you combine all of them we're over taxed, but it doesn't always show it, you might see the local tax or the state tax but you don't see the other taxes because all companies pay other taxes and just charge the customers that don't see the other taxes.

      As for the Hungarian internet tax, have you looked at your current taxes imposes to have internet at your home? No because most people are sheep's going to slaughter.

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    •  
      Dfjhgjfghjf 4 hours ago
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      0

      Whoever proposed that tax should be fired from the cabinet. This is beyond idiotic on so many levels...Nice move Hungarian gov. embarrassing yourself like that. Want to plug budget hole? Abolish Soviet times rules for starting business or hiring with degenerate requirements for cashiers to attend government training and receive government certificates of training for waiters or cooks, and while you at it lower the VAT ,so that people can purchase more from the local small businesses. You insolent morons with Soviet brains.

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    •  
      Daver 13 hours ago
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      7

      In the US we pay a telecom tax of about 20% and most people don't even know it. If Hungary reduced the tax on home users and increased it for larger businesses to raise the same tax amount, then that should quiet the crowds somewhat. No one likes new taxes since they never reduce the old ones at the same time. A relatively small percent of Hungarian families own quite a large percentage of Hungarian assets (commercial buildings, bank stocks, etc.), but of course governments will never tax those and reduce the taxes paid by lower and middle income working people.

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    •  
      Winny 5 hours ago
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      1

      The internet is like a newspaper it's a voice that should be FREE and used for communication purposes and not be abused. Taxing the internet means it will be more controlled by the government. Free speech should be free with all citizens of the US. Isn't free speech a part of the constitution. Picking apart the constitution for the sake of more control of the government is like picking apart your free will.

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    •  
      Jimmie 19 minutes ago
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      Looks like Hungary is too smart to elect Obama.

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    •  
      Thunderspreck 3 hours ago
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      What actually worries me is Uncle Snatcher might get the same idea!

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    •  
      Joe 1 hour ago
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      The EU wants to tax the internet and doesn't like Hungry getting in the way. We also have negative trends is the USA: "weakening of the rule of law and intimidation of civil society ." Our courts have tossed out votes, nullified elections and imposed depravity on it citizens. We actually have it worse here.

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    •  
      Daniel L 13 hours ago
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      7

      I support Right-wing European governments in general; Europe needs to focus on the preservation of its native peoples; but an Internet tax is a bad idea. They should find the revenue elsewhere. Leave the Internet alone.

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    •  
      Mihaly 10 hours ago
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      3

      Dear GeorgeR what about 2/3 of people voting to the current leadership? Do you think the 1/3 opposition will take that nation to the heaven? Possibly you do not know what is democracy...

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    •  
      abcd 13 hours ago
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      2

      Taxation is the mark of the beast.

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